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Castings Glossary

Time:2016-05-17 Author:admin Click:40


Alloy — A substancecontaining two or more chemical elements, at least one of which is metal. Thesubstance usually has metallic properties and possesses qualities differentfrom those of the individual components.

AOD — A refiningtreatment used to control the carbon content of steel.

Binders — Binders are addedto mold materials in order to create a mold of sufficient hardness. Binders canbe either organic or inorganic materials.

CAD — Computer AidedDesign.

CAM — Computer AidedManufacturing.

Captive Foundry — A foundry operationthat is wholly incorporated into a larger manufacturing operation. A captivefoundry only produces castings for the operation that it is a part of.

Casting — A process used toform solid metal shapes out of molten metal. The molten metal is poured into acavity or a mold.

Charge — Metal and alloymaterials that make up the composition of a melt.

Cope — The top half of ahorizontally parted mold.

Core — The part of a moldused in the casting process that forms the internal shapes of a casting.

Crucible Furnace — A furnace thatmelts metals in a refractory crucible. The furnace is typically fueled withcoke, oil, gas or electricity.

Cupola Furnace — The traditionalfurnace used for melting metal. The furnace is typically fueled with coke.

Direct-Arc Furnace— An electric arc furnace in which themetal being melted is one of the poles.

Draft — Taper on thevertical sides of a pattern or corebox that permits the core or pattern to beremoved without distorting or tearing of the sand.

Drag — The bottom half ofa horizontally parted mold.

Ferrous Metal — An alloy that hasiron as the predominant metal.

Flash — A thin section ofmetal formed at the mold, core, die joint or parting in a casting. Flashusually forms when the cope and drag do not match completely or when the coreand the coreprint do not match.

Gas Porosity — A condition in a castingthat occurs when gas is trapped in molten metal or as a result of mold gassesthat evolved when the casting was poured.

Gating Systems — The channel(s) thatallow the molten metal to enter the mold cavity.

Green Sand — Moist sand that isbonded by a mixture that contains silica, bentonite clay, carbonaceousmaterial, and water.

Gross Weight of Casting — The weight of thecasting which includes the actual product plus the metal in the gating systemas poured.

Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) — The process ofusing high hydrostatic pressure and high temperature to compress fine particlesinto coherent parts.

Impurity — An element that isallowed into a metal or alloy. Impurities slightly change the properties of thematerial in some circumstances and can completely damage it in others.

Inclusion — Nonmetallicmaterials that become part of a metal matrix usually through reoxidation,refractories, slag, and deoxidization products.

Indirect-Arc Furnace — An alternatingcurrent electric-arc furnace. The metal being melted is not one of the poles.

Induction Furnace — An alternatingcurrent melting furnace that uses the heat of electrical induction.

Investment Casting — A casting processthat uses a wax or thermoplastic pattern and is surrounded in a refractory slurryto form a mold. Once the refractory slurry is dry, the wax or plastic is meltedout and the mold is formed. Molten metal is then poured in to fill the areathat was previously filled with wax.

Jobbing Foundry — A foundry thatcreates a wide variety of castings, in small quantities for a range ofcustomers.

Ladle — The name for avariety of receptacles used to move and pour molten metal during the castingprocess.

Lining — The refractorylayer of firebrick, clay, sand or other materials that coat the inside of afurnace or ladle.

Lost Foam Process — A casting processthat uses foam to form the pattern. The foam is eventually melted out of themold when the molten metal is poured in.

Metal Yield — The differencebetween the weight of a finished casting and the total weight of the metalpoured.

Mold — The cavity that themolten metal is poured in to form the final shape. A mold usually consists of atop and bottom piece made of sand or ceramic material.

Net Weight of Casting — The final weight ofa casting that is determined once all of the excess metal from the gatingsystem has been removed.

Non-ferrous Metal — An alloy thatdoesn’t have iron as the predominant metal.

Oxidation Losses — The loss of metalor alloy through the process of oxidation.

Oxidizing Atmosphere — Furnace atmospherewhich gives off oxygen under certain conditions or where there is an excess ofoxygen in the product of combustion, or the products of combustion areoxidizing to the metal being heated.

Pattern — The wood, metal,foam or plastic replica of the final product to be made. Patterns usuallyinclude gating systems.

Pattern Draft — The taper allowedon the vertical faces of a pattern to enable removal of the mold or die.

Pigging — Pouring moltenmetal back into lined containers so that it can be returned to the furnace.

Rapid Prototyping — The computerizedequipment that builds a three-dimensional model of a casting from a CADdrawing.

Reducing atmosphere — Furnace atmospherewhich absorbs oxygen under suitable conditions or in which there isinsufficient air to completely burn the fuel, or the product of combustion isreducing to the metal being heated.

Sand Casting — Producing metalcastings out of sand molds.

Sand Reclamation — Processing usedsand grains into usable forms so that they can be used in the casting processas a replacement for new sand.

Scrap — All non-productmetal produced during the casting process.

Shell Molding — Bringing aresin-bonded sand mixture into contact with a pre-heated metal pattern to forma mold.

Shell Process — The process inwhich clay-free silica sand coated with a thermostatic resin or mixed withresin is placed on a heated metal pattern for a short period of time to form apartially hardened shell. The bulk of the sand mixture inside the resultingshell is removed for further use. The pattern and shell are heated further toharden or polymerize the resin-sand mix, and the shell is removed from thepattern. Frequently, shell cores are made using this process.

Shotblasting — A process forcleaning castings that involves using a metal abrasive that is propelled bycentrifugal or air force.

Shrinkage — The reduction inthe volume of metal that occurs as it solidifies.

Shrink Hole — A cavity that formsin a metal part when there was not enough source metal fed into the mold duringthe casting process.

Slag — A film that formson top of molten metal as a result of impurities. Slag is composed of non-metalelements.

Slag Inclusions — Imperfections ofthe surface of metal caused by slag (impurities in the molten mix).

Slurry — The watery mixturesuch as the gypsum mixture for plaster molding, the molding medium used forinvestment casting, core dips, and mold washes.

Sprue — The opening in themold where the metal is first poured.

V-process — A molding process,developed in Japan, in which the mold is formed by stretching a sheet of mylarplastic over a heated metal pattern so that it conforms to the shape of thepattern. A box of loose sand is placed over the pattern, and a vacuum isapplied to the sand, which then conforms to the shape of the mylar film. Thussupported, the sand-backed film is removed from the pattern and is used as onepart of mold. When the metal is poured, the vacuum is released, and the loosesand falls away from the casting.

Vacuum Casting — The process ofcasting that uses a vacuum to draw molten metal into a mold that is placed intoit.

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