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Forging - Frequently Asked Questions

Time:2016-05-17 Author:admin Click:40

How are forgingsproduced?
There are several processes used to create forgings. All of them involveshaping metal by plastic deformation. The most common type of forging processis impression die/ precision forging. Other process included open die/handforging (resembles pre-industrial metalsmith work), ring rolling, extrusion andpiercing .The temperature and processes for various methods of forging varygreatly. Forgings can be created using metal that is either cold, warm or hot,depending on the requirements of the finished product.

How does forgingdiffer from casting?
Forging can be done to cold, warm and hot metal, however the metal is nevercompletely melted and poured into a die. Forging uses the exertion of pressureto shape the metal.

Casting involves pouring molten metalinto a mold and then allowing it to cool.

What does theforging process do to the source metal?
The forging process results in a variety of changes within the properties ofthe source metal. A forging process that requires drawing out the metal resultsin increased length and a decrease in the cross-section. Upsetting the metalresults in the opposite, decreased length and an increase in the cross-section.Squeezing metal in closed impression dies results in a change in length, achange in the cross-section, and an overall favorable grain flow.

What is the difference between cold,warm, and hot forging?
Cold Forging is used in theproduction of parts that are symmetrical and weigh 25 lbs or less. The processis performed when the metal, usually carbon and standard alloy steels, at roomtemperature goes through impression die forging or true closed die forging. Thedies used in cold forging are usually circular and require lubricant. The end productsare draftless, close-tolerance parts. Cold forging typically improvesmechanical properties of the finished pieces, however the improvement isn’tnecessarily useful in many applications.

Warm Forging is a cost-effectivemethod of forging that has become very popular as a manufacturing method. Byusing warm forging methods manufacturers see benefits such as lower tooling andpress loads, increased steel ductility, and as-forged properties that eliminateheat treatment. Warm forging also eliminates the need to anneal prior toforging. The process is usually performed when steel is anywhere from justabove room temperature to a temperature below recrystallization. Morespecifically the temperature is defined as 800 to 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

Hot forging methods involverecrystallization and deformation of steel simultaneously. The temperature usedfor hot forging is specific to the recrystallization temperature of the metalbeing used. In some instances the metal and the dies are heated to the sametemperature in a process known as isothermal forging.

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