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Forging - Glossary

Time:2016-05-17 Author:admin Click:29

Forging - Glossary

Aircraft quality — A high quality forging involved in controlledmanufacturing processes that must pass a series of required tests beforeapproval.

Alloy steel forging — A forging made from steel containing alloying elementsother than carbon (e.g., Ni, Cr, Mo). These additional elements are used toenhance physical and mechanical properties and/or heat-treat response.

AMS — Aeronautical Materials Specification

As forged — Refers to the state of a forging as it comes out ofthe forging die.

ASTM — The AmericanSociety for Testing and Materials.

Axisymmetric forging — A type of forging that causes metal flow to move in adirection away from a common axis in a radial direction.

Batch-type furnace — A single door heat treating furnace used to heat treatmaterials.

Billet — A term used interchangeably withbloom. A billet is a semi finished metal product usually of rectangular shapeand uniform section. Billets can be cogged, hot-rolled, or continuous-cast.

Bloom — A term used interchangeably with billet. A bloom is a semi finished metalproduct usually of square or rectangular shape. Blooms can be hot rolled orforged.

Brinell hardness — A rating of hardness for a metal part. The BrinellHardness Number (BHN) is determined using a standard table. Criticalinformation includes the diameter of the impression left by a metal ball thatis pushed into the surface metal and the load applied on the ball during theimpression.

Carbon steel — Steel that derives its physical properties from thepresence of carbon.

Chamfer — Using a straight angle or a grinding wheel to break or remove the sharpedges or corners resulting from forging.

Charpy impact test — An impact test in which a special V-notched specimenis broken by the impact of a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed in fractureis a measure of the impact strength or notch toughness of the sample.

Closed die forging — A forging process that shapes hot metal as two diesexert pressure from both sides as they come together. Closed die forgings aresupplied from ounces to almost 100 pounds each. Most forgings supplied byFerralloy are machined complete to our customer’s requirements. Machinedforgings are offered to the marketplace through our inventory stocking programto assist our customers in better inventory management as well as providingmore timely deliveries.

Coining — A process used after initial forging to improve the surface of the forgingor to attain closer tolerances — or— a closed die process that stamps thesurface of a metal part with an imprint of the die.

Cold forging — Various forging processes conducted at or near ambienttemperatures to produce metal components to close tolerances and net shape.These include bending, cold drawing, cold heading, coining, extrusion (forwardor backward), punching, thread rolling and others.

Cold heading — Plastically deforming metal at ambient temperatures toincrease the cross-sectional area of the stock (either solid bar or tubing) atone or more points along the longitudinal axis.

Cold lap — An error that is caused by the metal not completelyfilling the die during the forging process. Subsequent forging allows metal tofill in around the gap, however a seam forms between the layers of metal.

Cold shut — An error that occurs as metal folds over itself duringthe forging process. A cold shut commonly occurs where the vertical andhorizontal surfaces meet.

Cold working — Forging at a temperature below the metal’srecrystallization point.

Concentricity — Adherence of part features to a common axis.

Decarburization — Using heat to remove carbon from the surface of steel.

Dies(forging) — Tools or devices for creating a desired shape, form,or finish with a source material. Dies range from simple to complex, requiringanywhere from one to a number of impressions to form the desired shape. Inforging, dies are usually paired up to exert pressure on both sides of a metalpart.

Draft — The taper on the side of a forging to allow removal from the dies; alsoapplies to the die impression. It is Commonly expressed in degrees as the draftangle. As applied to open die forging, draft is the amount of relative movementof the dies toward each other through the metal in one application of power.

Draft angle — The angle of taper, expressed in degrees (usually 5°to 7°), given to the sides of the forging and the side walls of the dieimpression.

Extrusion — Shaping metal by a process that forces it through thedie. Extrusion can take place using either forward or backwards force dependingon product specifications.

Flash — The metal that extends out from the forging because it is in excess of themetal required to fill the die. Flash is typically removed by trimming.

Heat — The commonly used name for the product of a single melting operation.

Heat-resistant steel — Alloy steel designed for application at elevatedtemperatures.

Heat treatment — Creating metal parts with desiredproperties/specifications by using a sequence of controlled heating and coolingoperations.

Induction heating — Heating metals by means of an alternating magneticfield.

Ingot — A casting that will undergo subsequent rolling, forging, or extrusion.

Lap — An error that occurs as metal folds over itself and causes surfaceirregularities that appear as fissures or openings.

Mandrel — A blunt-ended tool or rod used to retain or enlarge the cavity in a hollowmetal product during forging.

Nonferrous — Metals like aluminum, copper and magnesium thatcontain no appreciable quantity of iron.

Open die forging — Forging when the metal being shaped is not completelyconfined during the process. The open die forging process uses hammers andpresses to shape metal parts, usually using repeated strokes and continuous manipulation.

Pickling — Using a heated acid bath to remove oxide scale fromforgings.

Rolled ring forgings  Produced in diameters up to 196”from carbon, alloy and stainless steel grades. Rolled ring forgings can besupplied in as forged condition or we can provide rough machining as well asmachined complete rolled rings. The highly engineered ring rolling processutilizing state of the art computer controlled equipment, NC lathes and theFerralloy, Inc. distribution model offers the marketplace immediate, measurableeconomic benefits.

SAE— The Society of Automotive Engineers.

Shot blasting — Using either centrifugal force or air pressure topropel metal at a high velocity at forgings. This process is designed to blastclean the forgings.

Shrinkage — The contraction of metal during cooling after hotforging. Die impressions are made oversize according to precise shrinkagescales to allow the forgings to shrink to design dimensions and tolerances.

Swaging — (1) Reducing the diameter of or rounding out a section of a forging by aseries of blows, tapering the forging lengthwise until the entire sectionattains the smaller dimension of the taper. (2) Tapering forging stock byforging, hammering, or squeezing.

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